Category Archives: TTW Guest Posts

Makerspace Lawsuits – A TTW Guest Post by Rick Thomchick

Monica Harris, a librarian from Oak Park, Illinois, recently posted a great article to the MakerSpaces and the Participatory Library group on Facebook about 3D printing and intellectual property in which Chris Anderson declared, “we’re going to get sued.”

I wryly replied with a link to a Wired article that the lawsuits had already begun. Michael Weinberg, an attorney with Public Knowledge who was interviewed for the article, characterized 3D printers as a “disruptive technology” that is raising many intellectual property issues, and Monica pointed out that 3D printers have exposed the differences between copyright and patent law.

Physical objects such as figurines, models, or Lego building bricks, are subject to patent law. And unlike copyrights, patents have a limited lifespan (20 years, sometimes more). In fact, Weinberg believes hobbyists should worry more about copying artistic patterns or designs on an object. “That violates copyright law,” claims Weinberg.

Weinberg ominously warned of the risk that Games Workshop and other toy manufacturers would lobby politicians to enact patent “reform” laws similar to SOPA. Which brings us back Chris Anderson’s proclamation of impending litigation against the Maker movement. So what’s to be done? Another member of the Facebook group shared some helpful links including the EFF’s efforts to keep 3D printing open, and a discussion of legal issues (scroll to bottom of page) on makerlibrarian.com (wow, there’s already a website for that!).

It’s not hard to envision yet another incumbent industry fighting the tides of technological change. But I can’t help but think that there is an opportunity for Games Workshop to market their own brand of 3D printers and charge for access to official design patterns, or to partner with MakerBot. Such a move could help them extend their brand, reduce their operational costs (labor, shipping, packaging, etc.) and engage their customers with the thrill of on-demand mass customization. It might sound crazy, but then again, how many libraries were using 3D printers when I first started my MLIS studies in 2009?

Reaching All Users: Deaf and Hard of Hearing Patrons in the Library – A TTW Guest Post by Holly Lipschultz

For those of you who already know me, I’m profoundly deaf and wear a cochlear implant and a hearing aid. For those of you who don’t–now you know! Many don’t, particularly if I wear my hair down. I talk quite normally thanks to the cochlear implant, and I hear well enough to “pass” for hearing. However, I struggle in some situations, and people get frustrated and say, “Never mind, it wasn’t important,” or assume I’m stupid or rude.

Deafness is an invisible disability. It’s easy to remember to make sure that there are ramps and elevators for people using crutches or wheelchairs. It’s easy to be aware of the blind person navigating the library with a cane or a seeing eye dog. But it’s not so easy to be aware that someone is deaf unless they have short hair and colorful, clearly visible earmolds.

Fortunately, it is fairly easy to accommodate the needs of deaf and hard of hearing people, making them feel more welcome in the library. I can write at length on the subject, but for now, I’ll give you tips on two things: communication and accessibility of library programs and services.

Communication

First, you DON’T have to know sign language, either ASL or SEE, in order to communicate with the culturally Deaf people who communicate primarily through sign. Is it useful? Undoubtedly yes. But not every library branch has an employee that can sign. And unlike, say, finding Spanish speakers for predominately Hispanic neighborhoods, there are no “Deaf” neighborhoods to relocate these signing staff to. It probably wouldn’t be feasible to be sure to train at least one staff member at each library location to know ASL.

And besides, not every deaf person knows sign language. I didn’t learn it in any real, systematic way until I started college; my parents raised me as hearing. Many others are late-deafened (think about your grandparents) and still prefer to communicate aurally and verbally. And many others are only mildly to moderately deaf, and have had little difficulty with hearing.

So, how can you communicate with deaf people?

First, get their attention. Don’t flap around like a crazy person, or else we’ll ignore you out of embarrassment. But if you don’t have our attention, waving your hands is okay. Light touching on our arms are okay. Then start talking. Normally. Oh, please don’t try to move your lips in an exaggerated manner. It’s like trying to listen to someone who is talking while his mouth is full of marshmallows. Yelling doesn’t help either. It’s hard to understand overly loud speaking, the same way it’s hard to drink from a fountain if it’s shooting at your mouth like a fire hydrant geyser.  Just talk normally. Easy, right?

Background noise freaking sucks. I’ve heard that hearing people can somehow “pick out sounds” and focus on it even if there is some background noise. It’s a mythical concept to me. So, if it gets temporarily loud in the library, pause during the loud noises, and repeat what you said as needed. Sometimes you might repeat things two or three times, so be patient. A trick some people use after the second repetition is to rephrase the sentence. Use synonyms. Reorder the sentence. “Are you looking for a specific breed?” can become, “What dog breed are you looking for?” and it can finally help make the sentence click in our minds.

If verbal communication is exceedingly difficult, or if you’re talking to a completely deaf person, use writing tools. The traditional means of communication can be a pencil and paper, though it can be annoying to both sides. Here’s another idea: Use Word on your computer. Turn the screen around so both of you can see it. Bring up Word or Google Docs in a separate window. Type what you need to say. We’ll tell you verbally in return. Or if they are completely deaf, let them use the keyboard to type what they need to say. Turning the screen around during reference and circulation transactions helps anyway.

Other communication tips

Hopefully your library has a TTY number and if you’re more forward-looking, chat assistance. Some deaf people use a relay service when calling, so be aware of that. Though, personally, relay SUCKS anytime there is a phone tree, so please have other contact options. Be sure to provide email addresses on your library websites for reference and circulation, or have an online contact form. Some deaf people do call. I do, with great reluctance. So please be patient and ready to repeat and rephrase things.

Library Programs/Services Accessibility

Now that we’ve covered the basics of communications, can you see where some of the problem areas might be for library programs and services? How you accommodate the deaf and hard of hearing can greatly depend on the library’s budget and grant income. Here are your options, from cheapest to more expensive:

Priority seating. Save some seats near the front where us deaf and HOH folks can read the speaker’s lips. Be sure to remind the speaker to always face the audience when talking, otherwise it doesn’t help at all. Make sure we know that those seats exist.

Printed transcript. If at all possible, procure and print some copies of the transcript, speakers’ notes, etc, and have them on hand for when people ask, so they can read and follow along during the program.

Captioning for online video/audio resources. It is possible to do this yourself thanks to YouTube. If you can’t afford the staff time, post the transcript. If you can afford the time, have someone upload the transcript to YouTube’s automatic caption-fier. Then go through and correct the text, since YouTube uses a combination of your transcript and it’s voice recognition to create the caption file, and voice recognition isn’t the best. Another option is to outsource the captioning to a company for video posted elsewhere that does not have caption service. There are many companies, big and small, but here’s a couple of examples to give you an idea: VitacAmeriCaptionCaptionMax.

CART captioningCourt reporters often make a little extra money using their equipment and skill to create real-time captioning. The downside to this is that, as far as I know, it serves only one or two deaf people at a time.

Sign language interpreter. In contrast to CART captioning, sign language interpreters can help a larger group of people. Although if you do have a large group of deaf people, getting an interpreter makes more sense than the other options.

There you go! I hope this helps make reaching out to deaf and hard of hearing people less daunting.

Holly Lipschultz is a graduate student in the San José State University School of Library and Information Science and works at the University of Chicago Library.  She lives in Chicago, Illinois, with her husband and three cats.

Unglue: Giving books to the world by crowd funding – A TTW Guest Post by Jan Holmquist

The most democratic book project I know is about to relaunch – Here is an article I wrote for the German library magazine BUB as member of the Zukunftentwicklers network – With a few corrections because a lot has happened with Unglue.it since the deadline:

What is crowd funding and what does it mean to unglue?

To unglue a book means that you buy the rights to the book and then pass them on by giving the book to the world for free to read in any e-book format and on any device – without DRM or time restrictions under a creative commons license. But you don’t do it alone. You chirp in a little and so does a lot of other people who think it is important to free the same book. This is called crowd funding. When you crowd fund (and unglue) the project you support has a deadline and the money needed must be raised before the end of this deadline or the project fails. If the money is not raised before the deadline – you don’t loose your money – because the amount you pledge is not drawn from your account unless all the money needed is raised.

The good thing about Unglue.it as I see it is that everyone is a winner. The author gets paid for his work and the world gets unlimited access to the book – What’s not to like about it? I think Unglue.it is the most democratic book project you can imagine.
The first book has already been unglued and is therefore yours too – it is “Oral Literature In Africa” by Ruth H. Finnegan – 278 world citizens participated in unglueing this book raising 7500 dollars – The e-book version is available for download from the Unglue.it website. You can go to Unglue.it to learn more and make your own pledge to give the gift of a book to the world.

Libraries, ebooks and freedom of information

In the current e-book market it is very hard for libraries to purchase and lend out ebooks to the public. This fact is making it darker times for universal access to information for the first time in decades. Lots of titles can’t be offered because the biggest publishers in the US are not working with the libraries there, and in Europe EBLIDA is doing work to get better deals here too. Booksellers say libraries are a threat to the ebook business even though research shows that libraries increase book sales – not the other way round. The current situation looks like a library nightmare. Though the focus for modern libraries shift from collections to connections it is still important that information will be more freely accessible in future – not less. There are also privacy concerns with some of the models in which libraries and we as citizens can purchase ebooks today. Booksellers can erase books from our devices (it has been done!), can spy on us to see what we read, underline and bookmark in our ebooks etc. Libraries do not own ebooks. They license them – and can’t lend them out limitlessly on most contracts.

The e-book formats are not universal and library e-book services are often hard to use limiting potential use because of technical illiteracy and difficulties.

The values behind Unglue.it contribute to another voice in the debate on the future of ebooks, libraries and access. If Unglue.it becomes a universal success the role of libraries on the e-book market will be (almost) obsolete because they will have provided all ebooks freely available for us all in every digital format without DRM and without spying on the reader etc. This is basically a very librarianish goal… – but there is still a long way to go.

Crowd funding – success and challenges

One important thing when crowd funding is that your project tells a story that is important to the possible contributors. You need to see that what you are contributing to will make a difference to someone and will be making the world a better place. This can be a tricky thing for a project like Unglue.it because everyone can agree that universal access to good books is an important issue – but what if the title does not appeal to me? Sometimes it is easier to raise a lot of money for a cause broadly known than for a work of art very few people know.
Crowd funding is not a new thing. It has been used to collect funds for helping out after natural disasters for many years and political parties are crowd funded by their members etc. Barack Obamas campaign for the presidential election 2008 was partly crowd funded like many other presidential campaigns have been. The new thing about Obamas campaign was that so many people contributed even if the amounts were small – a lot of people “owned” the campaign. These are all examples of projects that their supporters meant would make the world a better place.

Crowd funding projects – library related and beyond

In the library field successful crowd funding campaigns include Buy India a Library where 100 people from all over the world funded the building of a library connected to a school in Mysore, India including books, newspapers and wages for the staff for two years. The campaign raised more than 3000 Euros in less than two weeks and it was more funds than needed. Therefore it additionally funded four donkey drawn mobile libraries in Africa. The thought about opening a library in a world where a lot of libraries were closed appealed broadly.

The online library TV show This Week in Libraries current season is also partly crowd funded by people from all over the world who want to keep the show on the air. This Week in Libraries focuses on ideas and innovation in libraries and interviews library innovators from all over the world. The Help This Week in Libraries campaign showed that the show has a large world-wide supporter group.

A few examples of non-library related projects are singer Amanda Palmers newest album, art book and tour crowd funded via the very popular platformKickstarter.comHer campaign collected more than one million dollars before deadline.

The Uni is a reading room for public space that is also funded via Kickstarter and even though it is based in New York City there are now a new Uni in Kazakhstan too. It provides a flexible library like outdoor space for reading, showcasing learning and one of its aims is to improve public space.

Good luck with crowd funding your own future projects and with making the world a better place by crowd funding others projects and unglueing books to the world.

Jan Holmquist is a librarian working with library development in South East Denmark at Guldborgsund-bibliotekerne. He is also a global librarian, Zukunftsentwickler, blogger, Tweeter and crowd funder – member and co-founder of the Buy India a Library team and Help This Week in Libraries team.

Zombie Prom – A TTW Guest Post by Ellie Davis

Zombie Prom and Face-melting metal at your local library! Enjoy Prom like you’ve never experienced it before. Bring a can of food and join us in your Zombie worst or survivor best for an epic night at the Sweetwater County Library. All donations will go to our local Food Bank. The evening will begin with our annual Zombie Walk in which we will lurch down to the main street of town to Centennial Park where we will play a game of Zombies vs Humans, flag football style. We will re-group at the library for the Zombie Prom.

This year our music line-up is incredible. We gladly welcome Salt Lake City hard-core metal bands Breaux and Dethrone the Sovereignto our shin-dig, along with Green River favorites, A Human Medium and Picture It In Ruins. Opening the show will be a new addition to our local metal scene, Days May Come of Rock Springs.  Also photographers from Ohio Snap, Kyla Baumfalk and Shawn Huber will be taking free Prom pictures for everyone which can be retrieved from the Ohio Snap facebook page.

About Zombie Prom:

I got the idea for a Zombie Prom from a friend of mine, Jeremiah Castle, from Oregon five years ago. As soon as he mentioned it diabolical laughter began echoing through my brain (no pun intended). I had such a swirl of ideas flowing through my mind. I asked the library manager for permission to hold the event and she agreed. I began putting it together and reaching out to bands within a 200 mile radius and telling known zombie fans about it. The format for our event did not take long to evolve. I decided to make it a food drive so that we can give back to our community. Besides, zombies don’t need canned food anyway.

My friend Hannah Redden happens to be a zombie fanatic and she told me about a Zombie Walk. Again, that wicked laughter bubbled forth. I decided that we should definitely add that to the event, after all we might as well show off our costumes and chase willing people. It turns out that it is extremely fun to play zombie with hundreds of people.  Who knew? Of course we have a huge variety of zombie materials at the library, which we create a display for preceding this event.

This year promises to be the biggest event to date. I feel a little bit like Dr. Frankenstein because for the first time, all of the bands I invited to play the show agreed. This includes two well known bands from Salt Lake City, Utah, which is approximately 370 miles round trip from Green River.  The Salt Lake City bands are Breaux and Dethrone the Sovereign, both of whom opened the show for world renown metal band, The Human Abstract  and many others. Hailing from Green River are local favorites, A Human Medium along with Picture It In Ruins, who previously opened for the world famous band,  Protest the Hero. Opening our fifth annual Zombie Prom will be a band new to the metal scene, Days May Come.  For the first time we have professional photographers, Kyla Baumfalk and Shawn Huber of Ohio Snap Photography taking Prom pictures and filming the show.

Needless to say, I am looking forward to seeing just how much chaos we can create within our allotted space this year. It is bound to be memorable and I have a really good feeling about it this year. I swear I can already hear the call for braaiiinnnss…

Ellie Davis is Young Adult Librarian and Assistant Manager of Youth Services at Sweetwater County Library in Wyoming.

 

Update: Hello everyone! I just want to let you all know that our 5th annual Zombie Walk and Zombie Prom was the best one to date. We had over 200 people on the actual Zombie Walk and great fun at the park playing Zombies vs Humans. The Zombie Prom was the biggest and best metal show that we have put on thus far with a gate count of about 700. We even had people attending from as far away as Brigham City, Utah! We gathered hundreds of items of non-perishable food items for our local Food Bank. Thank you so much to everyone for their help, support and participation in the most epic Zombie Walk and Zombie Prom ever. Check out our facebook page by searching for, Sweetwater County Library System and check out the pictures. You may also view pictures on facebook if you search, Ohio Snap Photography. Thank you again!

Cycling for Libraries – A TTW Guest Post by Mace Ojala

Note from Michael: Mace’s post echoes my own thoughts about the R-Squared conference. The opportunities for learning, collaboration and engagement seemed so fresh and exciting at the conference as they did while cycling.

 Cycling for libraries – one of infinite different ways to cooperate with colleagues

A hypothesis: there are better, and more efficient ways to spend time with colleagues than to sit in an auditorium and watch powerpoints all day long.

Sounds like common sense. But when you take a look at our profession, librarianship, you will quickly notice how much time, effort, money and kerosene we spend to send our best minds to go to isolated rooms to sit still and quiet for hours and hours. One person on the stage talks about his/her work, and right after everyone has been initiated to the topic, we change to another one. We’re just funny, aren’t we!

Tacit knowledge shared by many experienced conferencegoers tells that the most fruitful stuff at conferences happens during the breaks, in the corridors and in the afterhours. This is what we call “networking”. However – for whatever reason – the endless powerpoint presentations still have to be there to justify doing what we value the most.

Me and Jukka Pennanen, together with a network of other enthusiastic libraryfolks contribute to the process of de-constructing the  conference paradigm by organizing Cycling for libraries. To put a long story short (ask me sometime), in 2011 we and 100 other  librarians and librarylovers bicycled 650 kilometers from Copenhagen to Berlin for the 100th Deutscher Bibliothekartage, and this year 600km from Vilnius to Tallinn, then to Helsinki for the IFLA WLIC  2012 conference.

At Cycling for libraries we assume each and every participant is an expert in their profession, and has something valuable to share, and also a lot of things to learn. We assume that we are all intelligent, and also physical, social, emotional and beautiful beings. A one-and-a-half week bicycle journey works as a framework for this. We design and build our unconference not to be hostile to life, but to be lifelike itself.

Such a concept seems to bring together a motivated, curious and resilient group of participants from all the nooks of libraries. Take any group of libraryfolks away from their organizations and everyday lives, and make them bicycle through countrysides and cities of foreign countries; I guarantee a temporary, global library thinktank will form. And it’s quite thrilling I must say.

Don’t get me wrong, I love traditional presentations and conferences build around them as much as the next guy. I attend them and will continue to do so. But in addition to that model, we need more ways  to learn, share and work together. A lot of new and different ways. Cycling for libraries is one of them. This won’t happen on it’s own, we must push it!

Please do what you can to help expand the horizon how we library folks think about collaboration, learning and sharing, and seek for ways to turn those highflying thoughts to practical action when we return to our libraries on that eventual Monday.

Links: 

Mace Ojala is a librarydude from Helsinki. He’s into librarianship broader than libraries, the Internet, processes, cities and other constructions, beauty, and existentialism.

Photo Credits:

1. 7808999740_b77769b446_z.jpg by menickkt@Flickr
http://www.flickr.com/photos/61469837@N02/7808999740/in/pool-cyc4lib
2. 7689275214_bc657d8329_z.jpg by xmacex@Flickr
http://www.flickr.com/photos/xmacex/7689275214/in/pool-cyc4lib
3. 7802752654_3229ae85c3_z.jpg by cya_c@Flickr
http://www.flickr.com/photos/59549002@N00/7802752654/in/pool-cyc4lib/

 

23 Things In Norway: A TTW Guest Post by Jannicke Røgler

You invited the participants at IFLA Helsinki to shear their experiences about 23 things. I would very much like to shear with you the experiences from Norway. I am working as a library adviser in a county library south of Oslo in Norway and have done a lot of work with 23 things.

Your research conclusions is very similar to what we see in Norway. It is mainly a personal experience that has promoted confidence and curiosity in the participants.

A Timeline:

Autumn 2006  - we were four Norwegian librarians that found the American web page of 23 things. We started talking and planning for a Norwegian version of the course.

June 2007 –  the translation and adaption was ready and we launched the page http://23tingom2null.blogspot.no/

In Denmark there is a conference called “Next library”. In June 2007 I attended the conference together with colleagues from two county libraries. We heard a talk given by Yarra Plenty in Australia explaining how they had done 23 things. One of us even got a grant to travel to Yarra Plenty to learn more. We found that the combination of e-learning and seminars would work well in our counties.

In our three counties nearly 200 attended the course. Nearly 80% finished all “the things”. The participants got a diploma and we celebrated with an unconference
http://www.flickr.com/search/?w=30391409%40N00&q=23ting&m=text

23 things started in three of the 19 counties in Norway. Since then nearly every county has held the course. It is mainly the county libraries that has hosted the course. All together nearly 1000 library employees has been through the 23 things. In a small country like Norway with only around 4000 library employees, that is quite a lot.

Since 2007 I have spent a lot of time on 23 things, as an instructor and as a speaker all over Norway. I have even been in Helsinki talking for academic librarians. I few years ago I gave a talk in London together with a librarian from the University of Tromsø at Internet Librarian International in 2008. We did a survey together that we presented.

http://www.slideshare.net/janniro/what-difference-does-it-make-presentation

I have also been training teachers at an upper secondary school in a special version of 23 things.

In 2009 I was hired by the Norwegian Archive, Library and Museum Authority to make a special version of 23 things for the ALM sector:

http://betasuppe.abmblogg.no/

To me 23 things has meant a lot professionally. The idea behind this kind of course is great.

Jannicke Røgler is Library Adviser at Buskerud County Library, Norway

Pinterest and the New Meaning of Curation – A TTW Guest Post by Rick Thomchick

I have read quite a bit lately about the concept of social curation and sites such as Pinterest, a “virtual pinboard” for organizing and sharing images. ”Curation” is very much the nom en vogue these days for a number of disparate activities, and I imagine many librarians roll their eyes when they see this term used to describe RSS news aggregators, search filters and even brand strategy. Nevertheless, the rise of Pinterest has been nothing short of meteoric, and even Syracuse University’s iSchool is getting into the act, so I decided to try out the site and see for myself just how “curative” it really is.The first thing to know about Pinterest is that it is currently by invitation only, at least for now. You can be invited by another user, or submit an invitation request (I submitted a request and was granted an invitation 3-4 days later). Once you’ve signed up and logged in, using the site is relatively straightforward. Simply find an image you like on the Web or your own computer, and “pin” it:

creating a pin

The site asks you to select a category and briefly describe the image you’re pinning. Once you create your pin, the site automatically adds the time, date, and source, and adds the image to your user stream. Other users can then “like”, “re-pin” (repost) or comment on your pin, or follow your posts to view new pins as you make them.

Curating Your Aesthetic Interests

After using the site for a couple of weeks, my impression is that much of the user activity on Pinterest can legitimately be described as digital curation, at least as it is defined by theDigital Curation Centre. At the very least, users are engaging in rudimentary cataloging when they categorize a previously miscellaneous image. Describing to a pin can further enhance image discovery. And comments from other users may also constitute a form of curative content—especially if they provide additional insights about the pin.

But to truly “curate” an image, you’ll want to organize your pin into thematic collections (“boards”). For my first board, I organized a set of images from stories about Pinterest that I’ve read over the last few weeks while learning to use the site. These images (and the articles they are from) wouldn’t all show up in a single search query, and together they form a narrative about Pinterest that goes beyond the content of each individual pin. What’s more, I can allow other users to add new pins to my board, which introduces the possibility of true “social” curation and group storytelling.

Sharing: Caring, or Copyright Infringement?

Pinterest has drawn a lot of criticism about the legal issues around pinning and re-pinning copyrighted images. Some of the most poignant comments have come from Pinterest users like Kirsten Kowalski, a lawyer and professional photographer, who recently deleted all the pins she felt she didn’t have permission to use. The issue for Kowalski and others is that people may be indadvertedly committing copyright infringement and exposing themselves to lawsuits because Pinterest copies full-resolution images to its servers instead of just linking to them or creating thumbnails (which is what Google Images does).

Based on my own experience with the DMCA process, I am dubious as to one’s chances of getting sued out of the blue with no prior warning. But the more larger point raised by Kowalski is still valid: It’s not okay to use someone else’s work without permission. Unauthorized use of photography cuts across the same grain as music and file sharing with Napster and BitTorrent, and I have never heard anyone refer to BitTorrent seeding as “curation.” Respect for authorship, whether it means obtaining permission or attributing sources, must play a central part in this burgeoning culture of curation, lest the term fade into a faddish euphemism for piracy and plagiarism.

I think there is a growing awareness of the responsibilities that come with curation, as evidenced by sites like Curator’s Code, a project put together by Maria Popova (contributor to the Atlantic Monthly and author of the blog, Brain Pickings) as a way to ”honor and standardize the attribution of discovery across the web.” Some librarians I’ve spoken to have expressed a healthy skepticism about whether people will actually use this system, and attribution is certainly no substitute for obtaining permission to use an image. But I hold out the hope that Popova’s ambitious experiment could someday pave the way for a future where chains of attribution are as much a part of the Internet as hyperlinks.

Teach Them How to Fish

I have a feeling that someone is going to call 2012 “The Year of Curation,” if they haven’t already. Heck, by the end of summer, I will probably be thanking the employees at Cold Stone Creamery for “curating” my ice cream cone. And perhaps I will discover upon graduation that, as John Farrier exclaims, digital content curation is a career for librarians.

Sarcasm aside, there is a unique opportunity to seize the moment and “grab the public’s interest” while the coals are still hot. In fact, one could argue that engendering a culture of curation is of critical importance if libraries are going to adapt to the age of participation. As Michael recently pointed out in his Office Hours column, “preserving a community’s digital heritage is the work of both libraries and museums, but involving the community in these efforts is imperative as we move forward.” Initiatives such as theLubuto Library Project are living proof that this approach can be wildly successful, and I hope it’s the kind of thing I get to read more about in years to come, regardless of how we label it.

 

Revisiting Participatory Service in Trying Times – a TTW Guest Post by Michael Casey

Note from Michael : I am honored to have written over two years of The Transparent Library with Michael Casey. I am pleased he took me up on an offer to do a guest post about participatory service for the Salzburg Global Seminar week. I asked him to explore where we’ve come from 2005 and where we are headed. This was the topic of a blog he started in 2005 and a book he co-authored in 2007. But the world has changed a great deal since 2005. Perhaps the biggest change has been that of the economy derailing many initiatives and services in public libraries. In the end, however, I think you will see that Michael still has a lot of optimism regarding the strong future of public libraries, especially those that embrace a participatory service model.

 

Participatory library services have come a long way over the past six years. You don’t have to look far to see libraries participating in social media outlets, interacting with their community through blogs and SMS, and polling their users with online surveying tools. Entire industries have grown up around the idea of the participatory library, just take a look at Springshare.

We see many great examples of public libraries using services like Facebook to reach out to, and engage, their community. The New York Public Library has almost 42,000 Facebook fans, Hennepin almost 6,000. Many other libraries around the world have created a presence on Facebook.

But in those two examples, as in so many other library Facebook pages, you see some interaction between the library and the individual library user, but most of what you see is one-way. Most library Facebook pages are used for announcements and events notification, not true communication.

Yet this is just one example. Take a look at the Blogging Libraries Wiki and click through to a few library blogs. Many of them are no longer active. Others are gone and the URL simply redirects to the library’s homepage. And when was the last time your local library sent you a survey link that asked you for your ideas? For many of you, the answer is either “never” or “not for a few years”.

Over the past six years we’ve seen and heard a lot of push-back regarding the use of new social tools in the library. One quote that comes to mind is from 2007, “Right now people are enamored of blogs and wikis and Facebook and this sort of thing.  But that’s this year’s set of technology.  Five years from now we’ll be talking about a whole different set of things.

Ironically, the world still uses those same tools today. The only difference is that in late 2007 there were 50 million active Facebook users, today there are over 800 million.

So with this huge audience available to us, why haven’t we made greater use of the tools at hand? Why haven’t we moved beyond the idea of just talking to our community to actually engaging them? Or, to quote Tim O’Reilly, “How do we get beyond the idea that participation means “public input” (shaking the vending machine to get more or better services out of it), and over to the idea that it means government building frameworks that enable people to build new services of their own?

The participatory library is open and transparent, and it communicates with its community through many mechanisms. The participatory library engages and queries its entire community and seeks to integrate them into the structure of change. The community should be involved in the brainstorming for new ideas and services, they should play a role in planning for those services, and they should definitely be involved in the evaluation and review process.

These are not new ideas. I put them to paper in my 2007 book. Some critics of that book argued that libraries have been doing these things for ages. I wish I could say I agree.

The economic downturn has created very difficult times for libraries in this country. We’ve seen many public libraries struggling to stay open and remain relevant in their community. Many libraries have had to reduce hours and lay-off staff. Some have reached out to their communities, not only for short-term help in raising badly needed cash, but also for long-term help with planning.

The importance of this participation cannot be overstated, especially in these difficult economic times. Taxpayers are more and more reluctant to part with any percentage of their diminishing paychecks. Getting them to participate, at any level, will go a long way towards gaining their buy-in.

With limited resources, public libraries need to struggle for every dollar, and with limited tax revenue, funding agencies will part reluctantly with every dollar. It’s up to the library to be heard, to get its community of supporters to be heard. When faced with the question of who to cut, those funding agencies must know that a cut to the local public library can not be done quietly Public libraries are a core and critical resource in the community, and public library supporters are vocal and they vote.

Take a look around your library. Is there someone in charge of your social networking presence? Better yet, do you have a group of librarians charged with reaching out on Facebook and Twitter and, soon perhaps , Google+? You take reference questions over the phone and via text, why not through those other social outlets? And how are you involving those Facebook fans in your library’s planning process? Are you asking them to participate?

Your library’s blog may be shuttered for good reason — maybe your Facebook page has far more readers. Or, perhaps your blog went dormant simply because you didn’t assign someone (or some group) with the responsibility to keep it going. Whatever the case, spend a little bit of time reexamining all of the ways you’re reaching out to your community and reallocate resources in order to most efficiently talk to, and talk with, that community.

There are far more tools available to us today than there were in 2005. And our communities have grown over these past six years. Kids and adults of all ages are now far more involved and engaged through social networking outlets. The ideas of participation and transparency are no longer new — many in our community now expect these things as a standard part of organizational operations. By taking advantage of those available tools you may find that renewed efforts by your library are met with much greater success today than ever before.

It’s far from the end for public libraries. It’s easy, in these tough times, to only listen to the naysayers and prognosticators of doom, to only hear those in our community calling for the elimination of libraries. But limited tax revenues, the Internet, and eBooks are not burying the public library. Limited tax revenues will force us to become more efficient, the Internet is part of our future, and eBooks are simply another delivery vehicle. We control this future, and we can make it a successful one by making full use of the tools at hand.

 

This post is a reflection/response to questions posed at the Salzburg Global Seminar program Libraries and Museums in an Era of Participatory Culture, exploring the challenges, solutions and potential for participatory services within libraries and museums.

Special Thanks to the Salzburg Global Seminar  and IMLS for the invitation to participate in this event.

 

Supercharge your CPD: 23 Things for Professional Development – A TTW Guest Post by Maria Giovanna De Simone

What is it?

23 Things for Professional Development, also known as cpd23, is a self-directed, self-paced, inclusive, practical and free online programme open to librarians and information professionals at all stages of their career, in any type of role, any sector, and from any part of the world.  It encourages information professionals to explore and discover social media ‘Things’, including Twitter, RSS feeds and file-sharing, as well as other ‘traditional’ CPD routes, such as gaining qualifications, presenting skills and getting published.  Participants will be asked to assess how each Thing can assist them in their professional development, and then to blog about each Thing and share their thoughts, views and expertise.  The programme is completely informal and no prior knowledge or experience is expected or assumed.

What will I have to do?

Each week, details about one or more of the Things will be posted on the central cpd23 blog (http://cpd23.blogspot.com).  We’ll then invite you to explore the Thing in question – and don’t worry, we’ll provide lots of guidance and support – and then to record your response on your own personal blog.  Please don’t worry if you haven’t already got a blog as we’ll cover that in Thing 1, but feel free to use an existing blog if you’ve got one.  We’ll ask you to register your blog with us as part of Thing 2, just so we know that you’re taking part and can say hello!  And we’ll list all the participants-about 280 so far, from all over the world, and rising all the time-on a Delicious page and in an RSS bundle so you can find other people taking part.  We think each Thing will take about an hour to complete, so there’s no major time commitment involved.  There are also plenty of ‘catch-up’ weeks built in, and you can complete the course at your own pace.

What will I gain from it?

23 Things for Professional Development is a great way to supercharge your CPD, no matter what stage of your career you’re at, what role you have, or how professionally involved you already are.  It aims to assist participants to explore their own professional development and to reflect on it.  We hope that it will enable participants to learn about the different ways to enhance their careers and to equip them with the tools, skills, knowledge and confidence to boost, underline or kickstart their CPD.  We also hope that it’ll be a lot of fun and a brilliant opportunity to meet and get connected to other information professionals, as well as an incentive and an excuse to think about-and talk to others about-your career advancement.

I’ve done a 23 Things programme before.  What’s different about cpd23?

The 23 Things framework is tried, tested and trusted, and there have been lots of other programmes.   If you’ve already done one, that’s great!  We still think there’s a lot to gain from taking part in cpd23, and you’ll have a headstart because you know what to expect.  With cpd23, we’ve used the existing framework, but given it a bit of a twist, and it differs in two ways.  First, unlike other programmes, it’s not just about social media, but includes plenty of offline Things too, and some of the social media Things which we’ve included might be different from those used by other programmes.  Second, it’s got a different focus: it isn’t about whether or how you could integrate each Thing into your working life, but about how you could use it for your professional development.  Cpd23 is a little more personal and more reflective than other programmes.

How do I join in?

23 Things for Professional Development starts officially on 20th June, 2011 and it runs until October.  To join in, just visit the central cpd23 blog and get started!  The list of Things is already available online, as well as plenty of other information.  On 20th June we’ll post some guidance and instructions about how to set up and register your blog.  And if, at any time, you’ve got any questions at all, please don’t hesitate to contact the team either by leaving a comment on our blog, or by tweeting us @cpd23.  Please use the hashtag #cpd23 so we can see how you’re getting on.

Anything else?

One last thing is that while we will offer you as much support and guidance as we can, nothing at all can beat the face-to-face support of your colleagues, so encourage them to take part too. So spread the cpd23 message!

Acknowledgements

Our 23 Things for Professional Development programme was inspired by 23 Things Cambridge, and is based on the original 23 Things programme at the Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County in the USA in 2006.

 

Maria Giovanna De Simone, Information Assistant, Careers Service Library, Cambridge, UK,  is one of the  CPD23 organising team members.

What is “Social Reading” and why should Libraries care? – A TTW Guest Post by Allison Mennella

Part 1:  Defining “Social Reading”

“Social reading,” as a concept, is actually quite simple:  people want to share what they have read with other people and receive feedback about their thoughts and ideas.  Technology is the great enabler for social reading, and the natural place for this activity to cultivate.  Social reading has several key characteristics.  First, social reading is an extremely public activity.  Gone are the days of “selfish,” private reading: reading alone in the bathtub, alone under the covers, alone on the couch, alone in the park, etc.  Social reading exists because of the interactions between two or more persons and the text, whether in-person or digitally.  Second, social reading extends the reader’s experience.  It takes the reader out of the book and encourages the reader to make connections, draw conclusions, summarize thoughts, and ask questions in conversation with others.  Social reading helps a book become memorable; it can be a conversation starter between two new friends, or a way to develop online skills like reviewing, recommending, communicating via social media platforms, and exploring what it means to be part of a community of shared interests (both on and off line).  

In that sense, it is important to point out that user-added content is also a crucial aspect of social reading.  Readers must be willing to express their points of view and leave a lasting “impression” on the work whether it is by posting comments on a review board, or leaving notes in the margins of a text, then loaning that book to a friend to read.  Social reading also leads to shared writing and shared thoughts which fosters better idea formation and explanation, than solitary, deep-focus reading (Johnson, et. al, 2011, p. 8).  Finally, social reading “[allows] journeys through worlds real and imagined, undertaken not alone, but in the company with other readers” (Johnson, et. al, 2011, p. 8).  In short, social reading is a way to connect with others and explore thoughts and ideas that might have gone unnoticed in a solitary reading of the text.

Part 2:  Describing “Social Reading” in its various forms

It is now time to examine the various forms of social reading.  The first is the traditional book club.  A traditional book club consists of a group of readers who meet in person, typically once per month, to discuss a specific book in-depth (Book-Clubs-Resource.com, 2007).  The demographics of book club members do vary, but typically club members tend to be almost exclusively females and a majority of book club goers are either over sixty-five years old and retired, or mid thirties and forties, and stay-at-home-moms (AuYeung, Dalton, & Gornall, 2007, p. 1-2).

There are numerous reasons why people join traditional book clubs.  Perhaps the main motivation is for the social interaction between group members over a common interest (AuYeung, Dalton, & Gornall, 2007, p. 3).  People are constantly looking for ways to connect with one another, and the traditional book club setting offers a chance to be part of a real “community” of people who share similar hobbies (Hoffert, 2006, p. 37).  Social reading in a traditional book club has a number of other advantages such as the ability to meet new and interesting people, the opportunity to read things outside of one’s typical repertoire of works, and to receive recommendations and reviews from other avid readers (Lloyd, 2010)

The next form of social reading is the online book club.  An online book club offers several advantages over the traditional book club model.  One advantage is the variety of book clubs available online, many dedicated to a specialized interest, genre, author or series.  Also, online book clubs tend to be more convenient as participation can take place at any time of day (Book-Clubs-Resource.com, 2007).  Online book club participants tend to be younger and more varied in demographic than traditional book club attendees.  The description of an online book club participant can often be described as:  “adult reader, primarily female, but also including men, twenty to forty years old, Internet savvy, with at minimum, a medium reading level” (AuYeung, Dalton, & Gornall, 2007, p. 7).

People join online book clubs because they are often a motivating and convenient environment to encourage voluntary book reading (Scharber, 2009, p.433).  Joining an online book club can be a great way to ease people into the book discussion format as there is less pressure to participate and participants have the option to remain anonymous until they are comfortable with joining in the discussion.  The 24/7 environment is also more convenient for people who have busy schedules and cannot always make it to a scheduled meeting, or for those who live too far to travel to the meeting destination.  Online book clubs are also great for those who want to have in-depth analysis and discussion about a particular book, genre, author, topic, etc because the online format gives every member ample time to express their points of view without running into the time constraints of a more traditional book club setting (AuYeung, Dalton, & Gornall, 2007, p. 3).

Of course, online book clubs are not without flaw.  One major con of online book clubs is the idea of “membership.”  Membership in online book clubs can often be unpredictable and less interactive.  In fact, a majority of readers prefer “to read others’ messages and get reading suggestions without commenting themselves…the majority of online book club members might be looking for readers’ advisory rather than participatory activities” (AuYeung, Dalton, & Gornall, 2007, p. 4).  While membership commitment may be an issue for the online book club reader who is looking for stability, many people are perfectly content with the “revolving door” atmosphere of the online book club, and value the ability to come and go as they please.

A healthy mixture of the traditional and online book club has manifested itself through social media platforms designed for cataloging, recording, discussing, recommending, reviewing and searching books that anyone from anywhere is currently reading, has read, or wants to read. “While some readers still get their book recommendations from newspaper reviews or Oprah’s Book Club, increasingly book lovers are turning to their friends and social media contacts for recommendations” (Hartley, 2010).  Social media “has taken reading and sharing literature to the masses, catalyzing conversations and perspectives from eager readers who want to share their thoughts to a broader world” (D’Andrea, 2010, p.11).  Users can post updates, comment on other’s reviews, show appreciation or dissatisfaction for a book through a ratings system or build conversations inside the book itself on these social media sites designed specifically for books (Johns, 2010).

The latest form of social reading is experiencing unprecedented attention from readers and publishers alike and deserves extensive attention. EBooks and eReaders are beginning to challenge the very definition of what constitutes as “reading.”  For example, eBooks are visual, audio, interactive, extremely social, and a relatively new phenomenon that will no doubt begin to see magnificent and significant changes and additions to newer additions.  EBooks have the ability to extend the reader’s experience into the larger world, connect readers with one another, and enable deeper, more collaborative explorations and interpretations of the text (Johnson, et. al, 2011, p. 8). However, it is important to note that eBooks, while wonderful inventions, are only as “social” as the eReader device they are read from.

In order for an eReader to fully maximize the potential of an eBook and promote the concept of social reading, the eReader itself must be fully social.  A great example of an eReader manufacturer that has accounted for the more “social” aspects of eBook reading is the Amazon Kindle.  The Kindle has recently introduced several new features that encourage readers to share their thoughts with other Kindle users around the globe.  The most popular and most controversial feature is called “popular highlights.”  Popular highlights appear as dotted lines under phrases in books that multiple Kindle readers have highlighted (Johnson, 2010).  Popular highlights appear when Kindle users have turned on their “Public Notes” feature.  This feature lets Kindle users choose to make their book notes and highlights available for other to see.  Now, any Kindle user can choose to share their thoughts on book passages and ideas with friends, family members, colleagues, and the great Kindle community of people who love to read.  This is a new way for readers to share their enthusiasm and knowledge about books and get more from the books they read. (Dilworth, 2011).

Another newly added social feature is called “Before you Go.”  This application prompts users to not only rate a finished eBook on a 5-star scale, but to share their thoughts on the book with their social networks (Facebook and Twitter).  Recommendations for future eBook reads are also provided at this stage (Dredge, 2011).  Finally, the Kindle has also introduced a “lending” function that allows readers to share the book with a friend after completing it (Cain Miller, 2011).  Friends that borrow the book will be able to see the previous readers’ notes, comments and ratings, making the read a more personal, social experience.

Of course, not everyone is touting praises for the Kindle’s new social updates.  Many argue that features like public notes take the privacy out of reading, because “not only is the e-book not yours to be with alone, it is shared at Amazon which shares with you what it knows about you reading and the readings of others.  And lets you know that you are what you underline, which is only a number in a mass of popular views” (Codrescu, 2011).  Others worry that popular highlights will perpetuate “compulsive skimming, linking and multitasking” that will “undermine the deep, immersive focus that has defined book culture for centuries” (Johnson, 2010).  Finally, some accuse eBooks and eReaders of stripping the reader of a nostalgic and valuable experience that occurs with physical books, claiming “books that we’ve known and handled often have a personal, physical connection to the past that e-books won’t be able to capture” (Ng, 2010), noting that connections are made between reader and book based on components like the cover, spine, colors, paper type and fonts.  Because the Kindle is so much less personalized, in their opinion, some worry that the purpose of books and the reading experience itself will be lost.

No matter which side of the argument a reader falls on, the popularity of the Kindle, and other eReader devices like the Barnes and Noble “Nook,” the Sony eReader, and the Kobo are certainly worth noting.  With consistent additions and improvements being made to the eReading experience, libraries are and should continue to monitor the ways in which eReading and its social capabilities will affect current and future aspects of the patron-book relationship fostered through the library.

To conclude this section, my ideal social reading experience would encompass all four of the above mentioned forums.  I would create a book club that met in person once a month.  I would use GoodReads as an online portal for the book club to facilitate structured dialogue about the book as the readers progressed through the story.  I would encourage the book club members to create and maintain profiles on the social networking site, GoodReads, so that members of the group can get to know one another and receive recommendations, reviews and ratings from the fellow members.  Also, I would encourage members to read the book via the Kindle or eReader, highlighting passages along the way and making their notes public so other members of the group could read the “instant,” thoughts of other readers.  I would also pick a Twitter hashtag for the book so that members can tweet relevant passages, discussion points, thoughts, or questions in real-time.  The physical book club meeting would focus more on overall impressions of the book and discuss questions that members brought up through the month that may have gone unanswered.  Mixing these four mediums would absolutely create the ultimate social reading experience.

Part 3:  Discussing Libraries and Social Reading

Libraries are in a unique position as they have the ability to both encourage and stifle social reading depending on their openness to the concept.  In order to avoid the later scenario, libraries must take a greater look at what makes social reading a successful and necessary component of the reading experience.

One of the biggest factors for successful implementation of social reading in the library is the participation of librarians and the willingness to adopt, work with, and, in some cases, develop Web 2.0 tools to assist in facilitation of social reading scenarios.  There are essentially three steps that librarians can follow in order to promote and create thriving social reading experiences in their libraries.

Step 1:  Develop a social network, online, so that the social reading experience can continue away from the physical building

To increase both the library’s appeal and stress its value to users, libraries should consider implementing customizable and participatory services for social reading.  There are a number of ways to accomplish the creation of this social space from designing blogs, podcasts, a wiki or even using an existing social media platform like GoodReads.  The key is to build and maintain a site that uses moderated trust to give patrons a voice in this social space.  If possible, libraries should give patrons the opportunity to design and manage their own “space” within the library’s broader social platform.  In doing this, libraries will encourage user participation, a crucial component in Library 2.0 and the backbone of successful social reading.  Ways to encourage user participation includes allowing: “customizable interfaces, tag creation, and the [ability to] write reviews, or provide ratings of materials…” (Casey & Savastinuk, 2007, p.14).  The creation of this online space and the presence of user participation will help create a strong foundation for online social reading to occur in the library.

Step 2:  Encourage patrons to start book clubs of their own that use both the physical library and/or the library website or social network as a meeting space

As Michael E. Casey and Laura C. Savastinuk (2007) point out in their book, Library 2.0: A guide to participatory library service, patrons enjoy a mix of the traditional and newer services of Library 2.0 (8).  There is much to be said about the ability to meet in person to discuss a book versus “meeting” strictly online.  Libraries must be willing to hold on to the more traditional elements of their service models while supplementing these features with electronic resources and updated ways of thinking about and promoting reading.

Step 3:  Encourage participation from everyone

Book clubs traditionally provide a place for people to discuss “the hits,” in other words, the books that are very popular.  The social reading experience, however, aims to include the “long tail” of readers—those who enjoy the “non-hits”—which will always be great than those who prefer the “hits” (Casey & Savastinuk, 2007, p.64).   Social reading, especially in an online space or via an eReader like the Amazon Kindle, allows people who are part of the long tail to connect and discuss their niche subjects in more depth (Casey & Savastinuk, 2007, p.67).  Librarians must be willing to encourage participation from all users—new, existing, inactive and unfamiliar—in order to provide a wide variety of social reading groups for readers to join.

One way of accomplishing this is to allow everyone the ability to create a reading group for virtually any topic within both the physical and virtual library setting.  Likewise, the long-tail aspect of social reading could be maintained through the purchase and lending of eReader devices like the Amazon Kindle that allow readers to follow their favorite books and see the highlights and notes from other people who have also read the book and have similar shared interests.  Providing patrons with appropriate and varied ways to connect with others to discuss a text should be a main goal of libraries seeking to enhance and enrich the social reading experience for their patrons.

Part 5:  Determining the future of social reading

To conclude, social reading has been predicted to develop drastically over the next five years.  One of the biggest changes in development is that literary content will become more dynamic and retrievable, especially through the use of eReaders and eBooks.  With the eBook in high demand, libraries need to recognize that social reading is not just a trend, but rather a shift in preference.  In order to stay abreast of this cultural shift, libraries will need to play an important role in the distribution and promotion of social reading via traditional, online, and eReader spaces in order to enhance the user experience and evaluate the staying power and usefulness of different forms of social reading.  With the ubiquity of technology, libraries have many tools at their disposal to create, maintain and develop new and existing avenues of social reading.  While no one can predict the future of the book, or new forms of social reading, libraries can “maintain the momentum of change” (Casey & Savastinuk, 2007, p.xxv) and prepare themselves and their patrons for what’s to come.

References

AuYeung, C., Dalton, S., & Gornall, S. (2007). Book buzz: online 24/7 virtual reading clubs and what we’ve learned about them. Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, 2(2), Retrieved from http://journal.lib.uoguelph.ca/index.php/perj/article/view/237/527

Book-Clubs-Resource.com. (2007). What is a book club? Retrieved from http://www.bookclubs-resource.com/book-club.php

Cain Miller, C. (2011, February 7). Kindle books get page numbers and social features. The New York Times (Gadgetwise), Retrieved from http://gadgetwise.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/02/07/kindle-books-get-page-numbers-and-social-features/

Casey, M.E., & Savastinuk, L.C. (2007). Library 2.0: A guide to participatory library service. Medford: Information Today, Inc.

Codrescu, A. (Producer). (2011, March 7). E-book tarnishes the reader-book relationship [Audio Podcast]. All Things Considered (National Public Radio). Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2011/03/07/134342235/E-Book-Tarnishes-The-Reader-Book-Relationship

D’Andrea, D. (2010). Reading 2.0: From Solitary to Social. School Librarian’s Workshop, 31(1), 11-12. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Dilworth, D. (2011, February 7). Amazon updates Kindle software [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.mediabistro.com/ebooknewser/amazon-updates-kindle-software_b5699

Dredge, S. (2011, February 8). Kindle gets more social with public notes and sharing features  [Web log message]. Retrieved from https://www.mobile-ent.biz/news/read/kindle-gets-more-social-with-public-notes-and-sharing-features

Hartley, M. (2010, December 9). Social media invades book world. National Post, Retrieved  from http://www.nationalpost.com/arts/Social+media+invades+book+world/3950884/story.html

Hoffert, B. (2006). The book club exploded. Library Journal, 131(12), Retrieved from  http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA6349024.html

Johns, J. (2010, August 16). The meaning of social reading and where it’s headed [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://e2bu.com/the-meaning-of-social-reading-and-where-its-headed/

Johnson, L., Smith, R., Willis, H., Levine, A., and Haywood, K., (2011). The 2011 Horizon Report Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/HR2011.pdf

Johnson, S. (2010, June 19). Yes, people still read, but now it’s social. The New York Times  (Online), Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/business/20unbox.html

Lloyd, D. (2010, February 25). Five reasons to join a book club. Huffington Post, Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/delia-lloyd/five-reasons-to-join-a-bo_b_476162.html

Ng, C. (2010, May 14). When we go digital, what happens to the flyleaf? [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://fictionwritersreview.com/blog/when-we-go-digital-what-happens-to-the-flyleaf

Scharber, C. (2009). Online book clubs: bridges between old and new literacies practices. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(5), Retrieved from Academic Search Premier doi: 10.1598/JAAL.52.5.7

Thanks to Allison for sharing this paper she wrote for LIS768. Download the full length paper for LIS768 here: http://www.scribd.com/doc/57754227

Allison Mennella currently works for the Naperville Public Library in the Community Services Department.  She will receive her MLIS from Dominican University in December 2011.  Allison’s is interested in library advocacy and promotion as well as community engagement.  She hopes to use her passion in Social Media Marketing for creating new and innovative ways to connect community members to the public library.